The Fire Stream Triangle


The concept of the Fire Stream Triangle Is that your agency needs all three sides to develop   Gold Standard Fire Streams from Master Streams to Handline Streams.

If you are weak in any one area it will impacts the others. The complex thoughts surrounding spec and layout of equipment should be done before the alarm. From Chief of Department to the Rank and File, all are involved. Easily developing  gold standard fire streams and application methodology while keeping things simple takes effort, proper knowledge, training and equipment.

For example to get a gold standard handline attack package one must understand thoroughly these points:

The Big four of handline attack package design

 1) Nozzle Design and Implications: Nozzle Pressure, Weight, Stream Type, Reaction Force, Stream Velocity, Selecting Target flow, Droplet size,  proper application (including flowing pushes) when and why?

2) Hose Construction and Implication: Materials (Nylon vs Poly), Weaving, Pick Count, Denier, Construction Type (Through the weave VS Standard DJ rubber liner, pros and cons), Inspections: delivery, annual, and after every use. 

3) Hose Size and Implications: Target flows and tube velocity; the things you need to know before buying hose hydraulically.  Lazy water vs fast water vs adequate velocity, Impact to Friction Loss.

4) Pump Panel Outlet Implications: Design, errors, plumbing, pick up placement, foam loop complications and flow meters. Will it read right the right pressure, chiksan swivel pros and cons, size of gauges, flow meters.

All of the above needs to work synergistically to get to a fully open (pushable) small handline fire stream. This requires the nozzle to be out front, with enough hose behind it that won't kink and whip while the stream is played around the compartment including over the shoulder. It should be paired with the ideal amount of air entrainment both from fixed application and moving application. Even if you get the right equipment the training is a must, as training comes before equipment and after knowledge.   The knowledge should come first especially at the executive level, so proper training and equipment  can be sourced.  The video link below ͞shows making a push upstairs͟ and demonstrates the combined results of the LEFDC process with training based on the Nozzle Forward model. Courtesy Tualatin Valley Fire and Rescue.


Recent ULFRSI experiments (to be released 12/17) shows the flowing push as a ͞best practice͟ and should be available to your membership in your handline attack package. The equipment in the video (particularly the hose) was custom spec’d for the fire department follows the big 4 of handline attack packages above. The equipment is now available for all others fire departments that find it useful in achieving gold standard handline fire streams. Gold standard fire streams from large to small are the bread and butter of extinguishment. Are you where you want to be as an agency, do you need some additional knowledge, training or equipment? Subject Matter Experts stand ready to assist those Fire Departments willing to permit outside perspective, what are you missing in your isolation?  Prevent buyer’s remorse, wasted training, unnecessary expensive equipment, miss spent monies, and over complications, instead focus on gaining the right Knowledge necessary to lead your Fire Department to gold standard fire streams.  Only then will you maximize the life and property preservation potential of your agencies’ members - a goal we all have common ground with.  

In Solidarity,  

Dennis LeGear